Morocco is situated in the Maghreb region. Its capital is Rabatand Casablanca is by far its most populous city. Morocco is a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament. The King of Morocco holds vast executive and legislative powers, including the power to dissolve the parliament. Morocco is divided into 16 regions and subdivided into 62 prefectures and provinces. In the 2004 census 345 administrative units were considered urban towns. This does not include villages and rural communities.
Morocco is the fifth largest economy in Africa, and is considered relatively liberal governed by the law of supply and demand. The country is the world's biggest exporter and third producer of phosphorus. Economic growth has become far more diversified, with new service and industrial poles, like Casablanca and Tangier. Agriculture is being rehabilitated. The services sector accounts for half of GDP. Industry (mining, construction and manufacturing) is an additional quarter.
Largest cities – 2014 census (inhabitants):
- Casablanca (3,357,173)
- Fes (1,091,512)
- Marrakech (911,990)
- Tangier (947,952)
- Marrakech (911,990)
- Salé (815,000)
Water and waste
83.6% of the population has access to proper water sources and 87.6% to proper sanitation. In 2013 Morocco generated 6.85 million tons of municipal solid waste (per person 0.76 kg/day in urban areas and 0.3 kg/day in rural areas). The amount of waste is growing by 1.36% annually. Waste collection coverage in urban areas reaches 85%. The final destination of collected waste is generally open-dumping (52%) and landfilling (37%), while an amount of 8% is being recycled (GIZ, 2014 – Country report on Solid Waste Management in Morocco).
Energy and Climate
Morocco’s energy consumption in the road transport sector in 2013 (IEA, 2013) amounted to 33.8% of its final energy consumption (IEA 2000: 31%), whereas energy consumption per capita in 2013 amounted to 1,246 kg of oil equivalent (in 2000: 865.7 kg). Electricity consumption amounted to 1,277.4 kWh per capita in 2013 against 680.2 kWh in the year 2000.
According to World Bank figures CO2 emissions in Morocco amounted to 3.3 metric tons per capita in 2011 against 2.8 metric tons in 2000. CO2emissions in Morocco stem from the burning of fossil fuels and the manufacture of cement and include those produced during consumption of solid, liquid, and gas fuels and gas flaring.
Policies and strategies
- Policy Directives of the Ministry of Environment
- National Environmental Protection Strategy
- National Environmental Action Plan
- National Strategy for Municipal Solid Waste
- Wastewater Management Programme
- National Strategy for Cleaner Production
- National Plan against Global Warming
- State Industrial Environmental Development Programmes
- Public Business Sector Programme
- National Chart for Land Use Planning and Sustainable Development
- Environmentally Friendly Industrial Cities Programme
- Free Investment and Private Industrial Economic Zones Programme
- Governorates Industrial Activity Programme
- National Action Plan in the frame of the Strategic Action Programme for the protection of the Mediterranean from land-based pollution sources (UNEP/MAP)
- Millennium Development Goals (MDG)
- New National Energy Strategy 2020-2030
- Strategy for Development of Renewable Energy
- National Strategy for Sustainable Development
- New National Water Strategy
- Strategy on GHG Mitigation until 2030
Bottle-necks and developments
Discharge of untreated urban effluents to the sea, dry river beds or coastal lagoons, partial treatment of wastewater and partial connection to central sewage in major urban areas, and discharge of untreated industrial effluents to natural bodies and to the sea are major water related problems. Disposal of solid waste in uncontrolled dump sites, the existence of small solid waste dump sites within residential areas and co-disposal of industrial solid waste with municipal waste are the most important waste bottle-necks.
Morocco's energy supply almost entirely depends on imports (fossil fuels and electricity). Subsidies for petroleum products are high and costs for electricity production are hard to cover. In 2009 the country launched an ambitious solar programme with the aim to install 2,000 MW capacity from solar energy sources until 2020. Morocco has several areas with an excellent wind energy potential.
ENP Progress Report 2011
Morocco updated its Energy Strategy and concluded a study to establish a regulatory authority that will help separate production, transport and distribution functions in the energy sector. The work on creating a common electricity market in the Maghreb hardly progressed in 2011. The preparations on the Moroccan and Mediterranean solar energy plans have continued. Parliament adopted the Energy Efficiency Law.
No relevant developments in the area of climate change Morocco canbe reported. The new Constitution includes extended attention for environmental protection and civil society involvement, and a 20% recycling of waste target was adopted. The implementation of the policy of decentralisation of services has continued.
- Law on Protection of the Environment
- Law on Environmental Impact Assessment
- Water Code
- 25 Decrees on Environmental Water and Wastewater
- Decrees on quality standards for discharges, onwater use pricing and the creation of control bodies
- Communal Chart (Municipal Law)
- Law on Urban Planning
- National Solid Waste Management Law
- Renewable Energy Law
- Law on Agency for Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency
- Law on Moroccan Agency for Solar Energy
- Law on Energy Efficiency (under preparation)
- Law on the Reorganization of the Electrical Sector (under consideration)
- Royal Decree on the framework for the electricity market